Metallic push pins and the work hanging free. The works are going to be more individual but I mades these two as combined skin tones of sisters and children. 1. “Sisters: Jerusa and Noemia” - 90 & 89 yrs old, caucasian of Portuguese decent, and 2 “Children: Claudia & Kai”, 4 yrs/caucasian and 2 yrs old African American. Both photography/encaustic on Silk Tissue paper, roughly 10.5x7.5 inches.
Personal Notes on skin color and tones data:
- In the development and conception of art projects and installations regarding my research and skin tone images collected, I intend to remain Neutral. I want to present the science of skin color and the evidence of the commonality in the process. In the presentation of the images, my intentions are to present the various different subtleties of all the various skin tones collected. The view(ers) can then begin to contemplate, process, and interpret through their own experience of the work, hopefully leading them to think about not only the differences of race and cultures of our human species, but also the commonalities of our species.
- Early humans evolved to have dark skin color around 1.2 million years ago, as an adaptation to loss of body hair that increased the effects of UV Radiation. Before the development of hairlessness, early humans had reasonably light skin underneath their fur, similar to that found in other primates. The most recent scientific evidence indicates that anatomically modern humans evolved in Africa between 200,000 and 100,000 years ago, and then populated the rest of the world through one migration between 80,000-50,000 years ago, in some areas interbreeding with certain archaic human species (Neanderthals, Denisovans, and possibly others). It seems likely that the first modern humans had relatively large numbers of eumelanin producing melanocytes, producing darker skin similar to the indigenous people of Africa today. As some of these original people migrated and settled in Asia and Europe, the selective pressure for eumelanin production decreased in climates where radiation from the sun was less intense. This eventually produced the current range of human skin color. Of the two common gene variants know to be associated with pale human skin, #1 (Me1r) does not appear to have undergone positive selection, while #2 (5LC24AS) has undergone positive selection.
- Positive selection is the process by which new advantageous genetic variants sweep a population. Positive selection, also known as Darwinian selection, is the main mechanism that Darwin envisioned as giving rise to evolution.
Melanin: definition: Melanin is a broad term for a group of natural pigments found in most organisms. Melanin is produced through a multistage chemical process known as Melanogenesis, where the oxidation of the amino acid tyrosine is followed by polymerization. The Melanin pigments are produced in a specialized group of cells known as melanocytes.
There are three basic types of melanin:
1. Eumelanin: two types: a)brown eumelanin, and b) black eumelanin
2. Pheomelanin: largely responsible for color of Red Hair
3. Neuromelanin: found in the brain.
- In the Human skin, Melanogenesis is initiated by exposure to UV Radiation, causing the skin to darken.
- In Humans, Melanin, is the primary determinant of skin color, also found in hair, and the pigmented tissue underlying the Iris of the eye and also found in the brain and other body tissues.
- Melanin in the skin is produced in the melanocytes found in the basal layer of the epidermis. Although, in general, human beings possess a similar concentration of melanocytes in their skin - the melanocytes in some individuals and ethnic groups produce variable amounts of melanin. Some humans have little to no synthesis, a condition know as Albinism.
Pheomelanin - in part a pink to red hue, is concentrated not in just hair but in the lips, nipples, glans of the penis, and vagina. Present in hair mixed with some brown eumelanin can produce strawberry blonde hair and with more Pheomelanin the result is red hair. Also present in the skin of red heads consequently often these human have a more pinkish hue to their skin as well.
66. Asim, M, 15, Seattle, brown, American/Indian-asian.
67. Julie,F, 52, ft worth Texas , steel blue, Caucasian/ German
68. Shauna, F, 54, Lincoln Nebraska, hazel, Caucasian/Swiss German
69. James, M, 59, Ghana/West Africa, dark brown, African
70. David, M, 57, Bay City/TX/USA, Hazel Eyes, Caucasian/French and English
71. Jake, M, 30, Kansas City, Missouri/USA, Blue eyes, Caucasian/German
72. Mark, M, 66, Kansas City, Missouri/USA, Brown eyes, Caucasian/German-Scotish/Irish.
73. Jacqueline, F, 55, Birthplace London/UK, Eyes Blue, Caucasian/English
74. Scott, M, 42, Born Houston TX/USA, Blue Eyes, Caucasian
75. And 75a, Diana, F, 43, Born Houston TX/USA, Brown Eyes, Hispanic/Mexican American
76. Coen, 6, Born San Antonio/TX/USA, Blue Eyes, Caucasian/Hispanic mix
- That color is entirely a cerebral phenomenon is evident.
- Light, visible and invisible, consists of a uniformly graduated series of wave motions or energies.
- Our color sensations are developed solely for 'Selective effect of natural objects towards light', and soley under the influence of the light reflected by natural objects.
- The evolutionary development of three highly developed color sensations according to the extreme and mean regions of the spectrum is the result: i.e., White, Red, Green, and Blue.
57. Deborah, F, 58, wit hits falls/Texas, green, Caucasian/European
58. Bonny, f,61, philidephia/Pennsylvania, eyed hazel, causian/Russian Jewish
59. Sheila, F, 63, Shreveport/lA, brown, African American
60. Joey, M, 50, white settlement Texas, hazel, causian/Italian.
61. Stephanie,F,50, bosie/Idaho, brown, causian/American Indian
62. Shayema, F, 44, dhaka/bangladesh, dark eyes, Asian
63. Clarissa, F, 29, Hilo/Hawaii, dark brown, Asian,
64. Summer, F, 32, Seattle, Blue, Caucasian/Italian
65. Rozarii, F, 46, co.cavan/Ireland, blue bright, Caucasian/ Viking saxony
- An interactive installation that records participants finger prints at the same time as their heart rates. To participate, people introduce their finger print into a custom-made sensor equipped with a digital microscope and a heart rate sensor; their finger print immediately appears on the largest cell of the display pulsating to their heart beat.
- The piece displays data from the last 10,952 participants in a stepped display organized along a fibonacci distribution. As new recordings are added, the oldest ones disappear.
- Fibonacci sequence: The Fibonacci Sequence is the series of numbers: 0,1,1,2,3,5,8,13,21,34,.... the next number is found by adding up the two numbers before it.
51. And 51a, Duohan, M, 29, Dalian/China, Black Eyes, Chinese/Asian
52. Rosemary, F, 52, Houston/TX/USA, Brown eyes, Hispanic American
53. And 53a, and 53b, Jerrod, 30, Dallas, TX. Blue eyes, Caucasian
54. Laurie, F, 57, Cedar Rapids/Iowa. Green, Caucasian/Easter European.
55. Allison, F, 52, Phoenix Arizona, hazel, Irish/Caucasian.
56. Pilar, F, 51, cuta/Columbia, hazel caucasian/Spanish